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Goodbye smallpox vaccination, hello monkeypox

Goodbye smallpox vaccination, hello monkeypox | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it

In 8 May 1980, the World Health Organisation declared that “the world and its peoples are free from smallpox.” Through decades of intense vaccination, this once fatal disease had been wiped out. It was a singular victory and having won it, countries around the world discontinued the vaccination programmes. After all, why protect against a disease that no longer exists, except in a few isolated stocks?

 

Unfortunately, this is not a rhetorical question. The smallpox vaccine did more than protect against smallpox. It also reduced the risk of contracting a related illness called monkeypox, which produces the same combination of scabby bumps and fever. It’s milder than smallpox but it’s still a serious affliction. In Africa, where monkeypox originates from, it kills anywhere from 1-10% of those who are infected. And more and more people are becoming infected.

 

Anne Rimoin from the University of California, Los Angeles compared data on the virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo over the last three decades. She found that, during those years, monkeypox has become 20 times more common in humans. In one particular area, 72 people out of every million were infected each year between 1981 and 1986. Between 2005 and 2007, that figure rose to 1442 per million. Rimoin thinks that we eased up the pressure on smallpox vaccination too soon. Between 1981 and 1985, only 404 cases turned up in all of Africa, and simulations predicted that the disease was unlikely to spread too far in a human population before dying out. This was no public health threat. In 1986, even the monitoring programme was stopped. In 2005 however, Rimoin’s group, together with the DRC Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization set up a new round of monkeypox surveillance and they spent two years collecting data. Their research showed that the disease is gaining ground.

 

Rimoin found that monkeypox was disproportionately affecting children and almost all of those who fell sick were born after 1980, when the smallpox vaccination programme was halted in the DRC. The vaccine wasn’t a perfect defence against monkeypox but it was still around 85% effective. Among people who were born during the vaccination era, those who were immunised were 5 times less likely to develop monkeypox than their protected peers. And this protection is clearly long-lasting; even 25 years on, they could still ward off the related virus.

 

These figures are probably underestimates too. The region’s inconsistent healthcare isn’t exactly conducive to accurate disease monitoring and Rimoin says that her team had word of many more cases, but couldn’t always check them out because of their remote location.

 

Monkeypox is spread by animals including squirrels and, fairly obviously, monkeys. As humans encroach upon the DRC’s tropical rainforests, the risk of being exposed to an infected carrier grows. Indeed, Rimoin found that the odds of contracting monkeypox were higher for people living near forested areas, and for men. As civil strife continues to affect the DRC, locals are being forced to rely more on hunting to get enough food and that brings men in close contact with furry viral reservoirs.

 

It’s an emerging threat, but Rimoin isn’t calling for smallpox vaccination to resume. Doing so would be logistically difficult in an area where even collecting data can be fraught. It might be better to take a more targeted approach, vaccinating only health workers who treat infected patients, and people who come into frequent contact with animal carriers. It may also be worth educating local people about the dangers of handling carrier species and the benefits of isolating people who show the very obvious symptoms, until they can be treated.

 

But most importantly, Rimoin wants active surveillance in regions where the virus circulates, especially since there are still so many unknowns about the virus. We need to better understand how it moves from human to human (and from animal to human), how often it’s fatal, or what the complications are.

 

It’s a good opportunity to take action now, at a time when the monkeypox is still confined to specific areas. Things might not stay that way. In 2003, there was a bizarre outbreak in the United States, as rodents from Ghana brought the disease to American prairie dogs, who handed it over to humans. All sorts of rodents the world over might become reservoirs for the disease and Rimoin writes, “If monkeypox were to become established in a wildlife reservoir outside Africa, the public health setback would be difficult to reverse.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Judgment against Chevron in Ecuador tainted by bribery

Judgment against Chevron in Ecuador tainted by bribery | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
U.S. District Judge Lewis Kaplan in New York said he found "clear and convincing evidence&...
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L'arbre aux 40 fruits

L'arbre aux 40 fruits | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it

 

Une fois l'arbre de travail âgé de deux ans, Van Aken a ensuite utilisé le bouturage afin d'ajouter plus de variétés sur les branches distinctes. (..) Après environ cinq ans et plusieurs branches greffées, le premier arbre de Van Aken de 40 fruits était complet.

 

Il ressemble à un arbre normal pour la plupart de l'année, mais au printemps, il révèle une mosaïque étonnante de, fleurs blanches, rouges et pourpres roses, qui se transforment en un tableau de prunes, pêches, abricots, nectarines, cerises et amandes, toutes des variétés rares et uniques, pendant les mois d'été...

 


Via Cyrille
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Tony Benn to BBC "If you wont broadcast the Gaza appeal then I will myself" - YouTube

Tony Benn accuses the BBC ON AIR of capitualating to the Israeli Government by refusing to air an appeal for the Gazan people by the Disaster Emergency Commi...
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A sign of things to come ?Armed bandits demand payment in water

A sign of things to come ?Armed bandits demand payment in water | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
LUCKNOW, India (AP) — Armed bandits in drought-stricken northern India are threatening to kill hundreds of villagers unless they deliver 35 buckets...
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Sick boast of the laughing rebels as they 'saw MH17 hit by missile'

Sick boast of the laughing rebels as they 'saw MH17 hit by missile' | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
The tweet from rebel commander Igor Strelkov indicated he thought his rebels had shot down an Antonov-26 military plane of the Ukrainian Air Force. .
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Gaza National Demonstration 19 July London: Stop the Killing - Stop the Bombing

Gaza National Demonstration 19 July London: Stop the Killing - Stop the Bombing | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
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Ignoring international appeals for cease-fire, Israel will hit Gaza "with great force"

Ignoring international appeals for cease-fire, Israel will hit  Gaza "with great force" | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Ignoring international appeals for cease-fire, Israel announces it would hit northern Gaza "with great force"
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Loonie Left & Liberals Conspiring as The Center for Public Integrity www.publicintegrity.

Loonie Left & Liberals Conspiring as The Center for Public Integrity www.publicintegrity. | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it

'The individuals include donors to the British government..'

'.. a famous London firm which specializes in “wealth management”...'

'..international (non loonie left wing) celebrities ...Placido Domingo, Dire Straits musician Mark Knopfler, vacuum cleaner tycoon James Dyson and Hollywood actor Mel Gibson....'

'...Britain’s newly-promoted financial services minister, Andrea Leadsom, ...'



'ICIJ is a project of the Center for Public Integrity founded in 1997 to extend the Center’s style of watchdog journalism, focusing on issues that do not stop at national frontiers: cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of power....'



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Report: NSA collected intimate data on ordinary Americans

Report: NSA collected intimate data on ordinary Americans | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Intercepted emails tell "stories of love and heartbreak, illicit sexual liaisons..."
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Holland's spine buckles yet again as France reportedly scraps planned hotel tax hike @digitalnapoleon

Holland's spine buckles yet again as France reportedly scraps planned hotel tax hike @digitalnapoleon | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
France is expected to scrap a planned hike in the tax levied on hotel stays after an outcry by the tourist industry, the Journal de Dimanche newspaper reported Sunday.

Via French-News-Online.com
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French-News-Online.com's curator insight, July 6, 7:51 AM

Didn't take long for another rowback. Government by Hollandaise sauce: propose an idea, get shot down in street protests, row back and renounce the plan. Decisive stuff.

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Can Hilary Clinton be trusted to tell the truth or is truth NOT part of politician's vocabulary ?

Can Hilary Clinton be trusted to tell the truth or is truth NOT part of politician's vocabulary ? | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
WASHINGTON (AP) — Hillary Rodham Clinton says she's donated to her family's foundation the huge sums she has earned in speaking fees at colleges fo...
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Big Brother Is Alive And Well And Living In Moscow as PUTIN

Big Brother Is Alive And Well And Living In Moscow as PUTIN | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
In a move seen as the latest attempt to tighten state control over online operations, Russia's lower house of parliament passed legislation on Frid...
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East African nations closer to regional anti-graft protocol but divisions remain

East African nations closer to regional anti-graft protocol but divisions remain | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Anti-corruption agencies in the countries of the East African Community are hoping to finalize a...
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'...delayed mainly over whether the member states -- Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda -- will give prosecutorial powers to their respective anti-corruption agencies ..'

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Smith & Wesson pays SEC $2 million to resolve FCPA violations

Smith & Wesson pays SEC $2 million to resolve FCPA violations | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Smith & Wesson Holding Corporation agreed Monday in an out-of-court settlement with the Securi...
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Tim Stanley 'I am very, very Catholic and my politics are right-of-centre. I love America, along with South Park, Doctor Who, unintelligible French cinema, dogs, freedom, liberty, apple pie, baseba...

Tim Stanley 'I am very, very Catholic and my politics are right-of-centre. I love America, along with South Park, Doctor Who, unintelligible French cinema, dogs, freedom, liberty, apple pie, baseba... | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
My new book, Citizen Hollywood: How the Collaboration Between LA and DC Revolutionized American Politics , is out in May - and you can read all about it in the Citizen Hollywood page of this website....
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MH17: the evidence against Russia is very strong if not overwhelming

MH17: the evidence against Russia is very strong if not overwhelming | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
In the hours after the Malaysia Airlines crash in Ukraine, evidence assembled from various sources appeared to point the blame at militants armed with Russian missiles
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Kerry lashes out at Russia , Putin replies witha video @investorseurope stock brokers

Kerry lashes out at Russia , Putin replies witha video @investorseurope stock brokers | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
There's no shortage of evidence that shows pro-Russian rebels shot down a Malaysian jet in Ukraine last week, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry sa...
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Chattanooga wants Feds to express train fiber-optic Internet service for consumers @investorseurope trading technology

Chattanooga wants Feds to express train fiber-optic Internet service for consumers @investorseurope trading technology | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Tennessee city seeks to expand municipal broadband service, pre-empting industry-backed state ban.
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Amerika : Land of the Gun 2014. Loaded Gun left In Walmart Bathroom

Amerika : Land of the Gun 2014. Loaded Gun left In Walmart Bathroom | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Walmart could be the next battleground in the fight over gun rights in retail chains after a loaded revolver was found in the bathroom of a South C...
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Welcome to Portugal Reconnect @offshorebroker

Welcome to Portugal  Reconnect @offshorebroker | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it

portuguese documents portuguese translations portuguese citizenship

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Le leader du parti malin : J’adore la natation

Le leader du parti malin : J’adore la natation | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it

Presidential Material or Comedian...?

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Rescooped by Investors Europe Stock Brokers from Politique : Place à la dure réalité et aux petits arrangements entres amis "AutreMent"
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L'UMP : 24 000 euros billets d'avion à l'épouse de Jean-François Copé en 2013 @investorseurope stock brokers Ile Maurice

L'UMP : 24 000 euros billets d'avion à l'épouse de Jean-François Copé  en 2013 @investorseurope stock brokers Ile Maurice | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
L'UMP aurait payé en 2013 pour 24 000 euros de billets d'avion à l'épouse de Jean-François Copé.


La poussière accumulée sous le tapis des années Copé commence à ressurgir. Alors qu'un audit des comptes de l'UMP doit être remis mardi à ses dirigeants, la dette du parti pourrait avoisiner les 80 millions d'euros, révèle le JDD dimanche 6 juillet. Le journal précise que, pour la deuxième année consécutive, l'UMP n'est pas en mesure de régler ses échéances bancaires, souligne l'hebdomadaire. 


Via L'Info Autrement
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NSA spying generally and mostly on US citizens and residents @youarecorrupt

NSA spying generally and mostly on US citizens and residents @youarecorrupt | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
Washington Post report says half surveillance files collected between 2009 and 2012 belonged to US citizens or residentsAssociated Press in Washing...
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PORTUGAL : The Banksters are at it again, ripping off countries and tax payers. @youarecorrupt

PORTUGAL : The Banksters are at it again, ripping off countries and tax payers.  @youarecorrupt | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
[Pagina 4] Ricardo Salgado, presidente executivo do BES, comprou cerca de 2 milhões de acções da EDP em momentos-chave do processo de privatização da eléctrica nacional que decorreu entre Outubro e Dezembro de 2011 através de uma sociedade offshores cham...
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Mark Weber's Take on Russia's Early Soviet Regime

Mark Weber's Take on Russia's Early Soviet Regime | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
The IHR, an independent, public interest history research and publishing center, seeks to promote peace and freedom through greater awareness of the past.
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LUNOCO Photographie _ espace mer & bateau

LUNOCO Photographie _ espace mer & bateau | Culture, Humour, the Brave, the Foolhardy and the Damned | Scoop.it
photographe de mer [ Gérald COULON ] Les photos de LUNOCO, portfolio, espace mer & bateau, photos de mer, photos de voile, photos de bateaux, photos d'illustration...
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